The importance of the consumer, which is positioned at the center of the business world, is increasing day by day. Businesses can offer better mixes of products and achieve competitive advantage; consumer buying behavior and the factors affecting this behavior is possible with a good understanding. In this context, various psycho-social models and theories have been developed that examine the shopping behavior of consumers in the online environment and explain the factors affecting behavior. Models that can better explain consumer decision-making process and purchasing behavior are also developed by synthesizing and / or expanding existing models.
Internet and Web
Today’s Internet; It has become an indispensable element of the modern world by allowing people to pay their bills, shop, and learn new things through highly powerful search engines and databases, and do research and share with other people as never before. The Internet, which started as a big science project funded by the US military, unlike the current use, allows individuals and businesses all over the world to communicate with each other in various ways. Leiner et al. (2009) described the Internet as i a medium that provides collaboration and interaction between individuals and their computers, independent of their geographic location and the method of disseminating information, Le she said. The environment consisting of connecting computers is called a network. If these computers are physically close to each other, the network is called the local area network (LAN) and the wide area network (WAN-Wide Area Network). Internet starting with lower case; wide area networks are connected to each other. The Internet, which starts with capital letters; it is the name of a private network that connects wide area networks and billions of users around them through common connection standards and optoelectronic methods (Schnieder and Evans, 2009: 2) and has become a global resource on its own today (tools.ietf.org).
Historical Development of Internet
In 1957, the Soviet Union’s first missile trial with intercontinental ballistics, and then the successful launch of Sputnik, the first satellite in the world, forced the US to develop defense strategies against a possible nuclear war. In order to improve the technological infrastructure of these strategies, the US Department of Defense (ARPA) was established under the US Department of Defense (1958). ARPA has started its duty to be a pioneer force in science and new technologies, and was first charged with setting up a computer network that does not need to be managed from a single center in order to avoid the risk of loss of communication channels in the war.
In 1962, J.C.R. In the Licklider Massachusetts Institute of Tecnology (MIT), the idea of a global network known as the ’Galactic Network esi has aroused great interest and was brought to the head of ARPA in order to realize the dream of a global network (Edward and Bramante, 2009: 29). The establishment of a global network depends primarily on the development of physical devices and protocols that will direct the communication in this network. Paul BARAN, the father of the Internet and an employee of the American Research and Development Company (RAND), began working on the packet-switched network that will ensure the accurate routing of data within the network, and the American Advanced Technology Company (BBN), working for ARPA, developed the first physical device to achieve this. . Developed in 1969, this device was first installed at the University of Utah, the University of California at Santa Barbara, Stanford, and the University of California at Los Angeles, and the ARPANET, a four-node first switched network, was established.
Although computer networks are not a completely new concept, ARPANET is introduced as a general-purpose packet-switched network that connects physically independent, heterogeneous devices. The purpose of design was initially resource sharing. In this way, valuable resources would not be repeated on each node and savings would be provided.
ARPA, as DARPA (Defensive Research Projects Agency) in 1972 Changed. To be able to respond to the protocol requirement,
the network control protocol used in the communication of computers, TCP / IP protocol for connecting computers in different networks Vinton Cerf and DARPA employees from Stanford University in 1973 Developed by Bob Kahn. This structure formed by the introduction of the protocols In 1974, it was first described as the Internet.
The TCP protocol, a common network standard for data transmission, was started to be used. Increase in the number of institutions connected to ARPANET Increased data traffic in ARPANET and the American army She left her company MilNet to leave her private network (Banks, 2008: 77). ARPAET’s researchers in the 1970s and 1980s, ARPA super computers It is acceptable to connect. But by the middle of the 1980s, insufficient communication between users and supercomputers National Science Foundation (NSF), supercomputers all over America have installed and connected these computers with TCP / IP protocol has created the NSFNET network (Severance, 2014). In 1981 Europe, America, Canada, Hong Kong and Australia 1978 in the first international package-switched network. The Internet is ultimately the sum of these commercial networks and NSFNET. In 1989, he worked at CERN (European Center for Nuclear Research) Berners-Lee is required to share text linked to hyperlinks began to develop technology. Berners-Lee invention Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). Share this new information, called the World Wide Web the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol to send information over the network in the (HTTP) developed. Using URL (Uniform Resource Locator) access was possible.
In 1990, ARPANET was completely removed. The first search engine in the same year Archie, published by McGill University. With URL and HTTP the first web site was published in 1991 as a result of the scanner’s readiness and Mosaic is the first web browser in the web has been made available to all users in the same year. Mosaic, the first web browser, was published by NCSA and later It’s named Netscape. Netscape, the most popular browser of the 1990s.
Ordered in 1994 by Pizza Hut on their website, PizzaNet the first order given to the pizza on the Internet. In the same year, the first internet bank (First Virtual) was opened. 1996 Internet service providers such as Sprint and MCI started to emerge and Nokia launched the first mobile phone with Internet access. 1999 has become the standard of wireless network in 2001 and file sharing in 2001.
Although Internet and Web terms are often used interchangeably, they are actually two different concepts. While the Internet refers to the worldwide computer network, the Web is a service in which the Internet provides access to billions of people to Web pages (Laudon and Traver, 2010: 8). In other words, the Internet concept refers to a technical infrastructure, while the Web is used by people to identify documents or content that are connected and created in the form of digital signals. This content has been continuously developed and expanded to the present day by Tim Berners Lee. Ballooning in technology stocks and stock exchanges in the 1990s, Netscape’s Web browser company in 1995, the NASDAQ technology stock market shares in the public offer more than doubled in a few hours made itself felt. Factors that have increased this balloon; favorable economic conditions with low interest rates, technological innovations and strong belief that these innovations will change the world. This balloon, known as the Clinton balloon or the dot-com balloon, exploded in a few hours after the NASDAQ stock market hit the summit on March 10, 2000. In five years, the five-year-old stock exchanges returned to their pre-Netscape situation in a few years. Thousands of newly established technology companies went bankrupt. Although the Dot-com balloon affects the whole world, the biggest impact was seen in America. Silicon Valley, known as the center of the computer industry, was unable to work (Anderson, 2012: 1,2).
Up to this point, Web 1.0 is a platform in which the information designed in the form of texts and pictures is published in a static way. This platform does not allow any interaction for those consuming the data on it and is known as the read-only Web (Rudman, 2010). By the middle of 1995, users were able to access HTML pages using Web browsers. Because of the read-only nature of content, people were unable to change content. Developments in the electronics field made the work of mainframe computers in the 1970s made by personal computers in 1980’s and the interest in the Web increased as accessibility increased. Due to this interest, while the balloon expands, companies aim to sell their products over the Internet or become an Internet portal. In 2004, the directors of O araya Reily Media and MediaLive International, which operate in technology publishing in an environment where the stagnation of Silicon Valley collapsed like a nightmare, met in 2004.
The purpose of the meeting was to develop new ideas that would eliminate the uncertainties in the Internet and the Web industry. Internet service that survives and survives growth after the explosion of the balloon provider companies were evaluated. The secret behind these companies’ success was that they managed to integrate their original methods with new business models using Internet technologies. In addition, although it does not currently refer to technologies to erase traces of destruction, a new name for the Web was discussed in a formal way and Dale Dougherty proposed the concept of Web 2.0.
In 2005, Tim OiniReilly announced his ideas behind the Web 2.0 concept. Later, he published and What is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software of (http://www.oreilly.com)
Tim OiştirReilly and Dale Dougherty named Web 2.0 as the latest trends in technology. They believe that the Web can radically change the ways of life and people’s life (Rosen, 2009: 93). According to the consensus, Web 2.0 was not a new type of Web, but rather the extension of the original ideas, principles and infrastructure of Web 1.0 (Anderson, 2007). According to Tim O’Reilly (2006), Web 2.0 geçer is a commercial revolution that uses the Internet as a platform, and to be successful in this revolution is to understand the rules of this new platform.
by taking advantage of more people to develop applications that can be used. arak
The network effect indicates that the value of that product increases for other users as the use of a product increases. First of all, in 1974, the concept of long-distance telephony research has affected the sectors such as software, microprocessors, telecommunications, e-commerce and electronic marketplace in the information technology industry (Sundararajan, 2006). Thousands of Web companies were re-established or changed the brand with the name of Web 2.0 in the following two years and years after the announcement of the Web 2.0 concept. With the support of popular media, Web 2.0 and Social Web have been introduced to the public. Companies like YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, Yelp, De.licio.us and SlideShare, which have benefited from the network effect and left their mark on the present day, grew rapidly in 2000s. Web 2.0 has radically changed the way users access content and how they interact. By removing this limitation of content on Web 1.0, Web 2.0 enabled users to dynamically update content, create new content, and share content they created.
The decline in prices of consumer electronics products, such as Web browsers, personal computers and cameras, has allowed users to easily access this new Web and make online content and sharing as they wish. Unlike Web 1.0, users have played a major role in Web development with Web 2.0 as opposed to static Web 1.0 (Birssall, 2007). According to Maximillien and Ranabahu (2007: 480), the success of this movement stems not only from social practices that made it possible, but from the society’s ownership of this revolution.
With the help of Web 2.0, the online user experience has evolved from read-only Web 1.0 to a model based on blogging and RSS feeds, search and tag, AJAX and partial page refresh and update, collaboration and social networks, wikis, online bookmarking and content sharing (Hanson , 2009: 2). Within this model, wikis and blogs have a very important place. The popularity of these technologies, even for non-technical people, has contributed significantly to the initial rise of Web 2.0. Wiki-based technology began in 1995, but became widespread in the early 2000s. Wikis to users ideas offers opportunities for writing, following online discussions and sharing notes. The blogs attracted great interest in the Internet in 2001 and since then they have been called weblogs. Blog is shortened as a blog with the concept of authorship In blogs, writers write daily news, political events, social issues, entertainment and technical issues.
Web 2.0 technology to people by offering free of charge to the IT industry, the companies that affect the most Yahoo, Amazon and Google has been. In 1995, Yahoo provided e-mail and free services to everyone. In 2003, Google opened Gmail. The service, which started with the invitation system, initially offered 1gb of space. Yahoo also increased email capacity and now offers unlimited email space to its users. Another touchstone is Amazon. Amazon is the first major Internet company to sell books on the Internet. The third important company is Google. A search engine that has a huge impact on accessing information for anyone who can access a browser. Google is a company that has entered the daily spoken language between these companies
(Campesato and Nilson, 2011: 8,9).
According to Sankar and Bouchard (2009, 18) Web 2.0 has led to the following trends;
- Citizen journalism
- Viral marketingRudman (2010) summarized the key components of Web 2.0 in three parts:
- Society and social component: the ability of consumers to read, create, edit and share content on the Web
- Technology and architecture component: multi-device and platform compatible software and applications
- Work and process: Cloud technologies, software, and resources are accessible through the network Lowe (2009: 242) is Web 3.0, which enables Web 3.0 to interact with users, using Web 3.0 and how people interact with devices and networks, and use information to sell businesses’ products. he has changed his forms.
Web 3.0 or Semantic Web by Santos (2015); It combines Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 features with machine intelligence. Machines and users are the key actors in the content creation, decision making. With Web 3.0, data in Internet content has become very diverse. Data are becoming more open to consumers and data is more valuable as it links with similar data features. Information and useful actions can be summarized in the form of adaptability. An example of a Wolfram Alpha search engine and Apple’s Siri application is Web 3.0.
The following table compares the Web versions;
Web 3.0 leads to an integrated Web experience where machines can understand and catalog data as human beings. The collected data is associated with other similar data and consumer data is acquired effectively and effectively (Rudman and Bruwer, 2016).
Internet Use in the World
The number of Internet users in the world is increasing rapidly. When internet statistics are analyzed from the explosion of the Dot-com balloon to the present day, the rate of Internet users is 44,7% for Asia, 76,7% for Europe, 87,1% for North America, 54,9% for South America 26.9, 56.5% for the Middle East and 68% for the Oceania. As of year-end 2016, the world’s population reached 7.5 billion and the number of Internet users reached 3.6 billion. The highest number of Internet users was in the Asian continent with the highest population. 1.8 billion of the 4.4 billion inhabitants use the Internet. North America has the most intensive internet users with an 88.1% penetration rate.
Figure 1.6 shows the percentage of Internet users in the relevant region population. The ranking in the image is also very important in terms of showing the level of Information Society.
Internet Usage in Turkey
The first wide-area network in Turkey, in 1986 EARN (European Academic and reseach Network) / BITNET (Because It’s Time Network) that connects to the network touvenant (Turkey Universities and Research Institutes Network) respectively. When this network did not respond to the needs, in 1991, METU and TUBITAK started work to establish a new network based on internet and the first experimental connection was made to the Netherlands via X.25 in 1992. In 1993, METU was connected to the NSFNet (National Science Foundation) in the USA at a rate of 64 Kbps (Kilo Byte per second). Turkey has links with the United States after Europe this link. In the following years, the internet connection speeds of Ege University, Bilkent, Boğaziçi and İstanbul Technical University increased to 512 Kbps.
In 1996, the National Academic Network (ULAKNET), which serves 176 public institutions such as TÜBİTAK, Military Institutions, Police Academy, Turkish Historical Society, YÖK, ÖSYM, was established.
Upon the increase in demand, the TURNET project, which enables commercial organizations and internet service providers to connect to the internet, was opened to internet service providers via three commercial lines, two of which are Istanbul (2 Mbps-512 Kbps) and one Ankara (2 Mbps). With this acceleration, the number of internet service providers exceeded 80 in 1997, the number of companies benefiting from the Internet reached 10,000, the number of computers connected to the Internet reached 30,000 and the number of people using the Internet reached 250,000 (Carpenter, 2014: 11).
According to the Household Information Technology Use Survey conducted by TurkStat, household computer and Internet usage has increased rapidly since 2004. While only 7% of households had access to the Internet in 2004, this rate increased by 10 times in 2016 to 76.3% (Figure 1.7 and 1.8).
Turkey’s population in 2016, 61.2% of the Internet using the ratio of 58% by 2013. According to data from urban areas, while 28.6% was realized from rural areas.
As seen in Figure 1.9, in the study on Internet access by age group of individuals in the last three months, the most reached age groups 16-24 and 25-34 were 84.3% and 78.8%, respectively. When the groups connected to the internet are evaluated together with their educational status, there is a positive relationship between the education levels and the percentage of access. In Figure 1.10, while 95.6% of individuals at the level of associate and above education reach the internet, the percentage of access to internet for primary school graduates is 34.7%.
As of 2016, 22.9% of households had desktop computers and 36.4% of them had portable computers and 24.6% of them had TVs that connected to the Internet and 96.9% of them had mobile phones.
84.4% of people in Turkey during January-March 2016 period and charts made by TSI for the purposes of using the Internet 1.3.a of individuals using the internet research web social media (facebook, twitter, etc.), 69.5% of uses newspapers / magazines to read. The percentage of those who create and share content on the Internet is 47% and in the next step, the Internet is used for information purposes. While the rate of using internet banking was 31%, the rate of those using goods / services was 20.5%.
Given in Table 1.4 and 94.6% of individuals in the first three months of 2016 according to the statistical information disclosed by TurkStat, Turkey in individuals related to internet usage and frequency of use of a regular internet user location. While 83.5% of the participants stated that they were connected to the internet almost every day, the ratio of those who were less than once a week was 5.1%. According to the data of the first three months of 2015, 87.1% of individuals are connected to the internet at home and the rate of those who are connected to the workplace is 42.5%.
Individuals who want to connect to the internet other than home and work prefer to connect via mobile phone (87.6%). According to Table 1.5, the ratio of having desktop and portable computers in households is calculated as 20.2% and 39.9%, respectively. Again, the rate of mobile phones in households reached a high figure of 97.7% for homes with internet access. Mobile, desktop and portable systems are seen as individuals’ point of access to the Internet.
Source in turkish: https://circlelove.co/web-internet-kullanim-tarihsel-gelisim/