Although e-commerce, similar technologies and applications are similar, according to the parties; There are nine different types of businesses, business-to-consumer, business-to-state and consumer-to-state ecommerce.
Business to Business (B2B)
As the electronic business world continues to grow rapidly, the future success of businesses all over the world is increasingly becoming dependent on the collaborative business capabilities of organizations and their work at Internet speeds. What is needed to survive in the new economy is to establish an appropriate balance between business practices and information technologies. The success of a new generation of enterprises can only be achieved by the right balance between business processes and technology. While some of the businesses were restructured in order to create more positive output, some have shrunk, and some have developed a set of strategies that include modern technology to leverage the opportunities of e-commerce, which empowers customers and suppliers and create new markets and opportunities. As part of this strategy, B2B e-commerce refers to the conduct of transactions between businesses electronically over the Internet, extranet, intranet or private networks. This may be possible if two or more enterprises electronically share information in their systems directly or indirectly. Although transactions are in real time, the collection and sharing of information from companies may not be in real time.
B2B e-commerce, which includes communication and economic activities between main business and business partners, is not directly addressed to the end consumer, but is not known enough by the public, but covers a large part of all commercial activities over the Internet.
The booming factors behind the rapid growth of B2B e-commerce were the globalization of the market, the increase of dynamic business relations, the elimination of price differences, the need to cooperate in new product development, to increase the efficiency of the workflows of the enterprises, to reduce the operating costs and to give quick reactions to the demands. Real-time collaboration and the transfer of business process management to the online environment have brought along the mentioned advantages. Advances in information technologies increase the efficiency of the activities carried out by enterprises and increase the efficiency of management information processes and increase the profitability of the company. B2B e-commerce has been growing rapidly since 1997 and has changed the economy by creating increasingly more efficient trading efficiency and more transparent markets.
In 2015, B2B sales in the US reached $ 780 billion, reaching 9.3% of all B2B sales, while B2C e-commerce sales were projected to reach $ 305 billion. While the growth rate in B2B e-commerce was 19% compared to the previous year, this rate was 17% for B2C e-commerce. B2B e-commerce sales in the US by 2020 are expected to reach $ 1.13 trillion. From a global perspective, B2B e-commerce sales will reach $ 6.7 trillion by 2020, exceeding twice the level that B2C e-commerce will reach. Global B2B sales are expected to have an online component of 27% in the next 5 years.
Business to Consumer (B2C) Electronic Commerce
Business to consumer (B2C) e-commerce; it means that the customers sell their goods and services to their customers through the electronic means such as internet, mobile phone and TV. In this trade model, businesses can sell a wide range of product groups from computer to car, book to food and drink and a wide range of services such as banking, insurance and stock, without the need for intermediaries.
In general, there are two types of players in the B2C model;
The first player is the companies that did not exist physically before and only operate in electronic environment. While companies such as Amazon.com and hepsiburada.com are not involved in physical assets, they continue their commercial activities in electronic environment on a global scale.The other player is the virtual market with comprehensive websites and virtual display cases.
are traditional enterprises that continue to enter. Ecommerce for these businesses,
rather than a new sales channel
and services through electronic channels. Wal-mart and Gap are examples of companies active in B2C e-commerce. The main advantage of these sites and companies is that they offer their customers a physical space where they can return the product they receive and receive direct customer service.
Although the B2C e-commerce model shows a significant potential for rapid development and frequency of shopping, its share in the entire e-commerce pie remains low. But; The increasing use of information technologies in the banking sector and the spread of e-banking increased the importance of B2C e-commerce model.
Consumer to Consumer (C2C)
With the rapid development of information technologies, especially in the Internet and mobile field, e-commerce has ceased to be the only inter-business or enterprise-consumer between consumers and other consumers. It is a model in which consumers can use their credit card or money transfer method under certain conditions, especially when they are used in a trustworthy website. The C2C model also has an auction process. The number of limited goods sold by the seller is determined by a lower limit and time limit at the end of this period is sold to the highest bidder. The company that established this infrastructure also receives commissions on the sales transaction. In other words, the company in the C2C model brings together only buyers and sellers. This trade model is developing rapidly in our country and gittigdiyor.com is a good example.
In C2C, two or more people come together by means of electronic means to negotiate goods or services. In this case, because the reliability of the sellers is difficult to determine by buyers, such problems have been largely solved by trusted companies such as eBay.com and gittigidiyor.com or through online security and trust services companies such as escrow.com and safebuyer.com.
In the electronic commerce model, the element of trust is often even ahead of the price, and the importance of security and trust companies in the development of the model is increasing.
Government to Consumer (G2C) Electronic Commerce
It is the electronic commerce between the state and the consumers. The G2C is still under development. The main factor that will determine the degree of development is the degree to which the public sector is transitioned to the online system. In line with the development of both the B2C and G2B types of electronic commerce, states have attempted to bring the collection of social payments and self-appointed tax revenues into the electronic environment. Again, the use of a management website by consumers who want to obtain information about the health services of the State can be given as examples of this category. With the transition to e-government, it is expected that there will be many positive effects such as computerization of transactions without waiting queues, transformation of public sector personnel number and structure, reduction of stationery expenditures, transparency of transactions and prevention of corruption in this way.
Government-to-Business (G2B) Electronic Commerce
It is the e-commerce format of businesses and public institutions on the Internet. The first examples of public procurement on the Internet and the bidding of companies in the electronic environment. In this developing e-commerce category, States are now striving to promote the development of electronic commerce by moving their activities quickly to the virtual world, and by means of electronic options such as VAT income, corporate tax payments.